In developmental psychology, attachment theory describes the psychological connectedness between human beings over an extensive period of time. According to British psychologist John Bowlby, who is considered the first attachment theorist, the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a major impact throughout the children’s lives. Primary caregivers who are available and responsive to their young child’s needs allow the child to develop a sense of security. Attachment theory expanded in the 1970’s and 1980’s to encompass four attachment styles: avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized, and secure. The healthiest of these attachment styles is secure attachment.
What Is Secure Attachment in Children?
Secure attachment indicates a special, trusting emotional bond between a child and his or her caregiver. This bond meets a child’s need for security, belonging, and understanding, allowing for suitable development of the nervous system. According to psychotherapists Kent Hoffman, Glen Cooper, and Bert Powell, authors of Raising a Secure Child, secure attachment is crucial to healthy development.1 They explain that two major themes govern parenting for secure attachment: providing comfort when needed and offering the freedom to explore when desired.
Studies show that children who have secure attachments tend to be happier, have more friends, are more trusting of others, and have better relations with parents, siblings, and extended family.2 They perform better academically, are more active, and are poised to create more fulfilling relationships as adults.
Signs of Secure Attachment Style
Signs of secure attachment style are evident as early as infanthood. Infants who have a secure attachment to their caregivers will seek them out for comfort and be easily soothed by caregivers when upset. This occurs when caregivers are consistent in responding to their child’s needs. When parents or caregivers are inconsistent with their responses, children are susceptible to developing an anxious attachment. When it comes to secure vs. anxious attachment, a child who is anxiously attached may not be as easily soothed by their caregiver and they may appear more distant and confused.
Signs of Secure Attachment Style in Children:
- Child becomes visibly upset when caregiver leaves room and happy upon their return
- Child seeks out caregiver for comfort when upset
- Caregiver is greeted with positive behavior upon return from absence
- Child prefers caregiver to strangers
- Child is responsive to discipline
- In older childhood, child expresses more empathy, shares feelings with others, and generally has higher self-esteem
How Children Can Form Secure Attachments Early On
Research shows that a secure attachment is formed with a child when the caregiver provides stability and safety in moments of stress, allowing the child to explore their surroundings and responding to the child’s needs for comfort and care.3 Caregivers who are aware of and responsive to subtle cues and behaviors from children are likely to form secure attachments.
How to Form a Secure Attachment With Children:
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- Practice nonverbal interactions like reassuring touches, attentive eye contact, and the use of an affectionate, calm tone of speaking
- Respond to child’s cries and nonverbal cues to comfort their distress
- Practice undistracted presence with child throughout the day (free from phones, computers, and other screens)
- Ensure child is getting enough sleep and proper nutrition
- Play and interact with child without overstimulating them
- Reconnect with child after a period of absence
- Prioritize self-care; a parent or caregiver cannot respond as well to their child’s needs if they are neglecting their own
Repairing Secure Attachment
In a study cited by Princeton University, researchers found that 4 in 10 infants lack secure attachments with their caregivers.4 While a number of things can impact this lack of attachment, from early childhood trauma to problems with the child’s nervous system to parental stress, some studies show that mental health issues, attention disorders, and learning differences can also play a role. For instance, research shows a lower incidence of secure attachment in children with ADHD.5 When a child has ADHD, it can be a challenge for the caregiver to form or maintain a secure attachment with them, especially when the caregiver feels unequipped to support their child appropriately. Getting support for ADHD can help a parent or caregiver feel more empowered to address their child’s unique needs.
Other research suggests that children who have attachment difficulties are more likely to develop anxiety disorders in their lifetime, including social anxiety.6,7 Often, anxiety co-occurs with ADHD. And parents or caregivers who struggle with mental health issues may also have difficulty forming secure attachments with their children.
While secure attachment forms as early as infanthood, it is never too late to repair attachment. Having realistic expectations and practicing patience with children is a good starting point. Setting boundaries and reconnecting after conflict helps to foster a sense of consistency and safety around the child. Maintaining routines and schedules will also help children feel comforted during times of change.
Lastly, seeking outside support can be beneficial, especially for children with attention disorders or mental health issues. This may include therapy and counseling or medication. In the case of ADHD or anxiety, many prescribed medications come with undesirable side effects like stomach upset, sleepiness, or appetite changes, however other alternative non-prescription options can also offer relief. One such option is the homeopathic medication Brillia, which is specifically targeted to reduce anxiety, stress, and irritability while improving focus and clarity. The active ingredient in Brillia consists of antibodies to the S100B protein, which is a key regulator of various different intracellular and extracellular brain processes. Brillia works by attaching to this protein and reducing symptoms of ADHD and anxiety without any harmful side effects.
Unlike prescription medications often prescribed for anxiety or ADHD, Brillia has no contraindications with any other supplements or medications (Rx or non-prescription). It is also safe for children five and older as well as adults. Brillia works best when combined with healthy lifestyle habits outlined in our 5-Pillar approach, which consists of a healthy diet, adequate sleep, controlled screen time, and mindfulness practices. Learn more about how Brillia works and find more resources about connecting with your child and giving them the support they need at the Brillia blog.
Erica Garza is an author and essayist from Los Angeles. She holds an MFA from Columbia University and a certificate in Narrative Therapy. Her writing has appeared in TIME, Health, Glamour, Good Housekeeping, Women's Health, and VICE.